Welcome to PerCrowd 2019!

Pervasive and mobile systems proliferate every aspect of our daily lives. Smart devices potentiate computation on the move and in the wild for users. Indeed, according to Statista, the number of mobile phone owners in the world will reach 4.9 billion in 2018, and 25% of them will own more than one smart device. As a result, users’ interaction and behavior is becoming more and more dependent on multiple-devices. While smart devices suffers from energy and performance issues due their constrained resources, they also mostly operate in isolation. Yet, several studies have shown that smart devices are frequently co-located in proximity to at least one other device throughout the day, suggesting that devices can potentially collaborate in conjunction to reduce the effort of resource intensive tasks, e.g., sensor sampling, decision making, screen sharing, network tuning and processing in general, among others.

Merging the resources of multiple devices to work together in a self-organizing manner is a tough challenge. Smart devices are not autonomous nor social entities that are aware of their context, e.g., location, local resources, other devices, and user’s preferences, among others. Thus, they lack proactive behavior that can optimize their operations. Common context understanding is critical in multi device setups, e.g., for the formation of collaboration groups, and for negotiating responsibilities between the devices. Since smart devices function in multiple roles, understanding how to use context to improve different aspects of multi-device setups become very complex as different challenges and considerations need to be addressed based on the type of resources that are merged, e.g., networking, processing, sensing, storage and so on. In addition, since smart devices are owned by users, devices need to be aware also about their owners preferences to avoid disrupting his/her Quality of Experience (QoE), and to foster continuous multi-device QoE for users.

In our second edition, the goal of the workshop is to explore the use and effect of multi-device context for interaction and communication between devices, including self-organization of proactive pervasive and mobile systems. While proactive behavior is not possible to achieve in an isolation manner, our workshop explores how to achieve automated devices proactiveness in conjunction. The significance of this research area is corroborated by the ever increasing variety of smart devices that are more and more being embedded in our day lives., e.g., smart fridges, smartwatches, smartphones, smart Tvs, pervasive displays, drones, etc.; the emergence of novel self-organizing computing infrastructures that operate in multi-device environments, e.g., edge and fog computing; and the increasing processing required by applications that cannot be executed in a single device, e.g., decision making using artificial intelligence.

Our workshop is the first to address the opportunities and challenges arising from the combination of two emerging domains: crowdsensing based context-awareness and collaborative multi-device computing scenarios. Our unique focus makes PerCrowd an exciting forum to discuss key research challenges and familiarize with state-of-the-art research in these topics.